Concussions

CONCUSSIONS AND SCHOOL SPORTS

FACTS AND STATISTICS

  • 10% of all contact sport athletes sustain concussions yearly
  • 63% of all concussions occur in football
  • Estimated that up to 20% of football players will sustain a concussion per season.
  • An athlete who sustains concussion is 4-6 times more likely to sustain a second concussion
  • ”Bell ringers” or mild concussions account for 75% of all concussive injuries
  • Effects of concussion are cumulative in athletes who return to play prior to complete recovery
  • The best way to prevent problems with concussion is to manage them effectively when they occur
  • No athlete should return to play while experiencing symptoms of concussion.

 

ON-FIELD SIGNS/SYMPTOMS OF CONCUSSION

Concussion Signs

  • Appears dazed
  • Confused about play
  • Answers question slowly
  • Personality/behavior change
  • Forgets plays prior to hit
  • Retrograde amnesia
  • Forgets plays after hit
  • Anterograde amnesia
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Concussion Symptoms
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Balance problems
  • Double vision
  • Photosensitivity
  • Feeling sluggish
  • Feeling foggy
  • Change in sleep pattern
  • Cognitive changes

 

LATER SIGNS OF CONCUSSION: Post-Concussion Syndrome

  • Decreased Processing Speed
  • Short-Term Memory Impairment
  • Concentration Deficit
  • Irritability/Depression
  • Fatigue/Sleep Disturbance
  • General Feeling of “Fogginess”
  • Academic Difficulties

 

SECOND IMPACT SYNDROME

  • Occurs in athletes with prior concussion following relatively minor second impact
  • Second impact has been shown to occur up to 14 days post-injury
  • Athlete returns to competition before resolution of symptoms
  • Catastrophic increase in intracranial pressure
  • Vasomotor paralysis, edema, massive swelling, herniation, death
  • Most often occurs in athletes <21 years old
  • Neuro-chemical processes appear to differ in developing brain

 

UPMC SPORTS CONCUSSION PROGRAM

What we know………

  • No athlete should return to play with symptoms of concussion
  • All athletes should be properly evaluated after concussion
  • Football has greatest risk
  • Soccer, wrestling, hockey, lacrosse, girls/boys basketball, cheerleading also carries significant risk 
  • ImPACT is currently available as an effective clinical “tool” for all levels of contact sport participation
  • Proper management of concussion is the best form of prevention

 

For more information from Brain Injury Association of PA: http://www.biapa.org/site/c.iuLZJbMMKrH/b.1760731/k.BD3E/Home.htm