• CONCUSSIONS AND SCHOOL SPORTS

    FACTS AND STATISTICS

    • 10% of all contact sport athletes sustain concussions yearly
    • 63% of all concussions occur in football
    • Estimated that up to 20% of football players will sustain a concussion per season.
    • An athlete who sustains concussion is 4-6 times more likely to sustain a second concussion
    • ”Bell ringers” or mild concussions account for 75% of all concussive injuries
    • Effects of concussion are cumulative in athletes who return to play prior to complete recovery
    • The best way to prevent problems with concussion is to manage them effectively when they occur
    • No athlete should return to play while experiencing symptoms of concussion.

     

    ON-FIELD SIGNS/SYMPTOMS OF CONCUSSION

    Concussion Signs

    • Appears dazed
    • Confused about play
    • Answers question slowly
    • Personality/behavior change
    • Forgets plays prior to hit
    • Retrograde amnesia
    • Forgets plays after hit
    • Anterograde amnesia
    • Loss of consciousness
    • Concussion Symptoms
    • Headache
    • Nausea
    • Balance problems
    • Double vision
    • Photosensitivity
    • Feeling sluggish
    • Feeling foggy
    • Change in sleep pattern
    • Cognitive changes

    LATER SIGNS OF CONCUSSION: Post-Concussion Syndrome

    • Decreased Processing Speed
    • Short-Term Memory Impairment
    • Concentration Deficit
    • Irritability/Depression
    • Fatigue/Sleep Disturbance
    • General Feeling of “Fogginess”
    • Academic Difficulties

     

    SECOND IMPACT SYNDROME

    • Occurs in athletes with prior concussion following relatively minor second impact
    • Second impact has been shown to occur up to 14 days post-injury
    • Athlete returns to competition before resolution of symptoms
    • Catastrophic increase in intracranial pressure
    • Vasomotor paralysis, edema, massive swelling, herniation, death
    • Most often occurs in athletes <21 years old
    • Neuro-chemical processes appear to differ in developing brain

     

    UPMC SPORTS CONCUSSION PROGRAM

     

    What we know………

    • No athlete should return to play with symptoms of concussion
    • All athletes should be properly evaluated after concussion
    • Football has greatest risk
    • Soccer, wrestling, hockey, lacrosse, girls/boys basketball, cheerleading also carries significant risk 
    • ImPACT is currently available as an effective clinical “tool” for all levels of contact sport participation
    • Proper management of concussion is the best form of prevention

     

    For more information from Brain Injury Association of PA: http://www.biapa.org/site/c.iuLZJbMMKrH/b.1760731/k.BD3E/Home.htm